Muhammad Khan Junejo

Muhammad Khan JunejoMUHAMMAD-khan-junejo

He was born on 18 August 1932 at Sindhri in Tharparkar of Sindh. He was born to a family of agricultural landowners, and as a result he went toHastings, England, to study at the agricultural institute.

Junejo’s political career began shortly after graduating, when he was elected to Sanghar District council. He became a member of the Pakistan Muslim League and was then elected to the West Pakistan Provincial Assembly. Under Ayub Khan, Junejo served as the Minister for West Pakistan railways.

In 1977 Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq declared martial law, while Junejo served in a series of minor government posts. Following the 1985 elections, in which candidates were unable to represent a political party, Zia appointed Junejo as his Prime Minister. Zia assumed that Junejo would provide little opposition to Zia’s programme; however Junejo began his term by pushing for the end of marial law and the re-introduction of political parties. Zia ended martial law in December 1985, less than a year after Junejo’s appointment.

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It was shortly after the re-introduction of political parties that Junejo formed the element of the Pakistan Muslim League that became PML-J, following his death.

Zia dismissed the Junejo government in 1988, following an investigation into the Ojhri Camp disaster, and its decision to sign the Geneva Accords on Afghanistan.

Junejo lost his government seat in the 1988 elections. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1990 and remained head of the PML. He held these posts until his death three years later.

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Lahore in 1933 – an aerial view

Lahore Nama

These original aerial photographs of old Lahore or the Inner City were shot in 1933. Zahra Mahmoodah has generously contributed them from a recently acquired album for Lahore Nama.

We invite the readers to identify the landmarks and buildings that are captured in the above photograph. Lahore remains the most beautiful city and in the 1930s it was surely a splendour!

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General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

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General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq’s tenure ranged from July 1977 to his death on 17th August 1988. Zia was born in Jalandhar, British India, in 1924. After graduation, he joined the British Indian Army in 1943. He married Shafiq Jahan in 1951.

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Ijaz-ul-Haq

One of his sons Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq joined politics and became a cabinet minister in the government of Nawaz Sharif. Zia-ul-Haq was appointed Chief of Army Staff (COAS) in 1976.

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After widespread civil disorder, he overthrew ruling Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in a bloodless coup d’état on July 5, 1977 and became the state’s third ruler to impose martial law. He initially ruled as Chief Martial Law Administrator, but later installed himself as the President of Pakistan in September 1978.

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Zia’s major domestic initiatives included the consolidation of the fledgling nuclear programme, which was initiated by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, denationalisation and deregulation and the state’s Islamisation. His tenure saw the disbanding of the Baloch insurgency. His endorsement of the Pakistan Muslim League (the founding party of Pakistan) initiated its mainstream revival. However, he is most remembered for his foreign policy; the subsidising of the Mujahideen Movement during the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan which led to the Soviet Russian withdrawal from Afghanistan. Zia died along with several of his top generals and then United States Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Lewis Raphel in a suspicious aircraft crash near Bahawalpur on August 17, 1988.

May his soul rest in peace.ameen.

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